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30-05-2018 | Enthesitis | Review | Article

Enthesitis: Much More Than Focal Insertion Point Inflammation

Current Rheumatology Reports

Authors: Abdulla Watad, Richard J. Cuthbert, Howard Amital, Dennis McGonagle

Publisher: Springer US


Purpose of Review

Recognition of the importance of enthesitis as the pivotal pathological process underpinning spondyloarthropathies (SpA) has increased in recent years. Thus, we summarized the current knowledge on the pathogenic role of enthesitis on SpA shown by both animal models and human studies in vivo.

Recent Findings

Experimental models have shown several SpA-like diseases that commence at entheses and are linked to nail disease as well as dactylitis, two important entheseal-associated conditions in humans. Frequently, enthesitis is not the primary outcome measure in studies of peripheral PsA and SpA although arguably it is the key parameter being indirectly assessed in spinal disease in ankylosing spondylitis. The use of different agents including JAK, IL-17, and IL-23 inhibitors contributes significantly to our understanding of enthesitis in terms of involved immune pathways.


Enthesitis and enthesis organ inflammation may be the primary pathological process underlying SpA associated skeletal inflammation. Emergent studies are beginning to elucidate the molecular basis for this type of joint inflammatory response.

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