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01-10-2018 | Juvenile idiopathic arthritis | Review | Article

Glucocorticoid treatment in juvenile idiopathic arthritis

Journal:
Rheumatology International

Author: Ezgi Deniz Batu

Publisher: Springer Berlin Heidelberg

Abstract

Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is the most common chronic rheumatic disease of joints in childhood. Glucocorticoids are being used in JIA treatment effectively for decades. Although systemic glucocorticoid use decreased with the introduction of biologic drugs, intraarticular glucocorticoid injections (IAGI) with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and non-biologic disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) still remain the primary treatment in JIA, especially in oligoarticular subcategory. Systemic glucocorticoids are used mainly for severe JIA-associated complications such as macrophage activation syndrome (MAS), myocarditis, pericarditis, pleuritis, peritonitis, and severe anemia; as bridging therapy while waiting for the full therapeutic effect of DMARDs; and in certain occasions for patients with severe refractory uveitis. Since glucocorticoid administration is associated with many adverse events, it is important to use glucocorticoids in an optimum way balancing the risks and benefits. The aim of this review is to summarize the current knowledge on glucocorticoid treatment in JIA. A comprehensive literature search was conducted utilizing the Cochrane Library and MEDLINE/PubMed databases. The main topics include mechanism of action, dose, duration, adverse events, vaccination during glucocorticoid treatment, the place of glucocorticoids in JIA treatment guidelines and consensus treatment plans, glucocorticoid use in JIA-associated uveitis, MAS, and IAGI. Data from the literature provide guidance on how to use glucocorticoids in JIA treatment especially for IAGI and systemic use in systemic JIA and MAS. However, there is lack of evidence and need for prospective randomized studies in most parts including the indications in different JIA subcategories, optimum dose/route of administration/duration of treatment, and tapering strategies.

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