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15-01-2018 | Osteoporosis | Review | Article

Regulation of Bone Metabolism by microRNAs

Journal:
Current Osteoporosis Reports

Author: Hanna Taipaleenmäki

Publisher: Springer US

Abstract

The small non-coding microRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as important post-transcriptional regulators of various physiological and pathological processes. The purpose of this article is to review the important recent advances on the role of miRNAs in bone remodeling and metabolic bone disorders.
In a physiological context, miRNAs regulate bone formation and bone resorption, thereby contributing to the maintenance of bone homeostasis. Under pathological conditions, an aberrant miRNA signaling contributes to the onset and progression of skeletal disorders, such as osteoporosis. Furthermore, miRNAs can be secreted to circulation and have clinical potential as non-invasive biomarkers. In a therapeutic setting, miRNA delivery or antagonism has been reported to affect several diseases under pre-clinical conditions thereby emerging as novel pharmacological tools.
miRNAs are key regulators of bone remodeling in health and disease. The future perspectives in the field include the role of secreted miRNAs in cell-cell communication in the bone environment. Furthermore, the clinical potential of using miRNAs as diagnostic tools and therapeutic targets to treat metabolic bone diseases provides an attractive future direction.

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