The Utility of Biomarkers in Osteoporosis Management
- Molecular Diagnosis & Therapy
Author: Patrick Garnero
Publisher: Springer International Publishing
The measurement of bone turnover markers is useful for the clinical investigation of patients with osteoporosis. Among the available biochemical markers, the measurements of serum procollagen type I N-terminal propeptide (PINP) and the crosslinked C-terminal telopeptide (serum CTX) have been recommended as reference markers of bone formation and bone resorption, respectively. The important sources of preanalytical and analytical variability have been identified for both markers, and precise measurement can now be obtained. Reference interval data for PINP and CTX have been generated across different geographical locations, which allows optimum clinical interpretation. However, conventional protein-based markers have some limitations, including a lack of specificity for bone tissue, and their inability to reflect osteocyte activity or periosteal metabolism. Thus, novel markers such as periostin, sclerostin and, sphingosine 1-phosphate have been developed to address some of these shortcomings. Recent studies suggest that the measurements of circulating microRNAs, a new class of marker, may represent early biological markers in osteoporosis. Bone markers have been shown to be a useful adjunct to bone mineral density for identifying postmenopausal women at high risk for fracture. Because levels of bone markers respond rapidly to both anabolic and anticatabolic drugs, they are very useful for investigating the mechanism of action of new therapies and, potentially, for predicting their efficacy to reduce fracture risk.