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21-06-2018 | Osteoporosis | Article

Do sarcopenia and/or osteoporosis increase the risk of frailty? A 4-year observation of the second and third ROAD study surveys

Osteoporosis International

Authors: N. Yoshimura, S. Muraki, H. Oka, T. Iidaka, R. Kodama, C. Horii, H. Kawaguchi, K. Nakamura, T. Akune, S. Tanaka

Publisher: Springer London



In this 4-year follow-up study including 1083 subjects (≥ 60 years), the prevalence of frailty was estimated to be 5.6%; osteoporosis was found to be significantly associated with frailty. Moreover, the presence of both osteoporosis and sarcopenia increased the risk of frailty compared to the presence of osteoporosis or sarcopenia alone.


This study aims to examine the contribution of sarcopenia and osteoporosis to the occurrence of frailty using 4-year follow-up information of a population-based cohort study.


The second survey of the Research on Osteoarthritis/Osteoporosis Against Disability (ROAD) study was conducted between 2008 and 2010; 1083 subjects (aged ≥ 60 years, 372 men, 711 women) completed all examinations on frailty, sarcopenia, and osteoporosis, which were defined using Fried’s definition, Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia criteria, and WHO criteria, respectively. The third survey was conducted between 2012 and 2013; 749 of 1083 individuals enrolled from the second survey (69.2%, 248 men, 501 women) completed assessments identical to those in the second survey.


The prevalence of frailty in the second survey was 5.6% (men, 3.8%; women, 6.6%). The cumulative incidence of frailty was 1.2%/year (men, 0.8%/year; women, 1.3%/year). After adjustment for confounding factors, logistic regression analysis indicated that osteoporosis was significantly associated with the occurrence of frailty (odds ratio, 3.07; 95% confidence interval, 1.26–7.36; p = 0.012). Moreover, the occurrence of frailty significantly increased according to the presence of osteoporosis and sarcopenia (odds ratio vs. neither osteoporosis nor sarcopenia: osteoporosis alone, 2.50; osteoporosis and sarcopenia, 5.80).


Preventing osteoporosis and coexistence of osteoporosis and sarcopenia may help reduce the risk of frailty.

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