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06-02-2018 | Osteoporosis | Review | Article

Efficacy of anti-osteoporotic medications in patients with type 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus: a systematic review

Journal:
Endocrine

Authors: Panagiotis Anagnostis, Stavroula A. Paschou, Nifon N. Gkekas, Aikaterini-Maria Artzouchaltzi, Konstantinos Christou, Dimitrios Stogiannou, Andromachi Vryonidou, Michael Potoupnis, Dimitrios G. Goulis

Publisher: Springer US

Abstract

Both type 1 (T1DM) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have been associated with bone fragility and increased fracture risk. However, little is known regarding the effect of anti-osteoporotic treatment on bone mineral density (BMD) and/or fracture risk in these patients. We aimed to systematically investigate the efficacy of anti-osteoporotic medications in patients with diabetes in comparison with non-diabetic subjects.
MEDLINE and Scopus databases were searched (up to 31st October 2017).
Nine studies fulfilled the pre-defined inclusion criteria [patients with T2DM (n = 8) or either T1DM or T2DM (n = 1)]. Regarding fracture risk, five studies were identified. Alendronate demonstrated comparable vertebral anti-fracture efficacy in patients with and without diabetes (n = 2), whereas non-vertebral fracture risk was either the same (n = 1) or higher in diabetic patients (n = 1). Raloxifene also demonstrated comparable vertebral anti-fracture efficacy in both groups (n = 2), without any effect on non-vertebral fractures in either group. In one study, diabetic patients exposed to raloxifene demonstrated the same vertebral and non-vertebral fracture risk with non-diabetic patients. Teriparatide (n = 1) demonstrated the same non-vertebral fracture rates in both patients with and without T2DM. Regarding BMD, equal increases in spine BMD were observed with alendronate (n = 4), risedronate (n = 1), and teriparatide (n = 1). With respect to hip BMD, similar increases were observed with teriparatide (n = 1), whereas data regarding alendronate were controversial (n = 3). No eligible study was found for zoledronic acid, ibandronate, strontium ranelate, denosumab, or bazedoxifene.
The presence of diabetes does not alter anti-osteoporotic treatment response, regarding BMD increase and vertebral fracture risk reduction.

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